Pedigree Zuiderent - van Wijgerden

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copyright ©2004  A. Zuiderent

 

Some comments

 

 

The pedigree can be found under „Kwartierstaat“, left on the top of the Homepage.

 

 

 

Language

Roots of the Zuiderent family

Pedigree system

Professions, foreign links

Links to nobility

The “Pedigree Collapse”-phenomenon

Ancestors as Crusaders and Pilgrims

Preparation for the crusades

The First Crusade 1096-1099

The failed Crusade of 1101/1102

The Second Crusade 1147-1149

The Third Crusade 1189-1192

The Fourth Crusade 1202-1204

The Fifth Crusade 1217-1229

Rulers in Jerusalem and Byzantium

New nobility of the Crusade states

Pilgrimages to the Holy Land

European crusades

Link to the Merovingians?

Dictionary Dutch - English

 

 

Language

The whole pedigree is formulated in Dutch because this family, which is living in Switzerland since 1966, has 100% Dutch roots. Most data were found in Dutch archives, papers, internet sites and mailing lists and will be primarily of interest to (far) Dutch relatives with the same roots and to some genealogists. Some frequently used Dutch terms are translated in the dictionary at the bottom of this page.

 

Roots of the Zuiderent family

The roots of the Zuiderent family, a small family with less than 100 members worldwide, have been located in the village of Maasland near the town of Vlaardingen, West of Rotterdam. Until 2011 the first known documented member of the family was Willem Jorisz, a well-to-do farmer in Maasland, very near to Vlaardingen, who was born around 1520. His son Cornelis Willemsz was the first member if the family bearing the name Zuiderent, in the 17th century written as Suijderent or also Van Zuijdereijnt. However, since 2007 it has been proven that members of the Zuiderent family already lived in the region in the 11th century. See the Press Release of Reuters of July 2007 about a DNA Match of a living Zuiderent with a 1000-years old skeleton.

This means, that the first known Zuiderent, who died between 1000 and 1050 in Vlaardingen, may have lived there during the battle of Vlaardingen or even participated in it. His braincase shows some healed dents on the right side.....

New findings

In 2011 we found 6 elder generations of the family, all living in the same area of Maasland. The first documented person we know now was called Hein Allaertsz. He and his brother Pieter are mentioned as witnesses in a document of 1341. Several members of the family were present in a legal process in 1468 before the Court of Holland. In this process they proved to be of noble origin, being descendants of the Van Oestgeest family; they also used the coat-of-arms of that family. They lived since generations as farmers, but because of their origin they still had the special rights of Dutch ‘welgeboren’ people, including the membership of the higher tribunal, where they served as judges. These findings are described in a book about the family, appeared in september 2012.

 

 

Pedigree system

This site however does not give a genealogy of the Zuiderent family, but a pedigree (in Dutch “kwartierstaat”) showing all known ancestors of our children. The normal numbering system for pedigrees is used, the father having the double number of his child, as showed in the following scheme:

 

Generation 1               Generation 2               Generation 3

 

                                                                       4. J. Zuiderent                       

                                    2. A.Zuiderent---------I

                                   I                                  5. J. Monster

1. J.Zuiderent ---------I

                                   I                                  6. G. van Wijgerden

                                    3. P. van Wijgerden---I

                                                                       7. A. Baars

 

 

This relatively big pedigree is organized as a book, with separate files for generation 8 – 37. A version management is used to document changes between the several versions.

 

Professions, foreign links

The descent of the first four families (generation 3) of this pedigree in the male-line is known until the beginning of the 17th century, only the Zuiderent line is starting earlier. The members of these families, living on the countryside, were primarily engaged as self-employed farmers, tradesmen, etc. The roots of these four families can be found in the “wet” part of the Netherlands, de delta of the rivers Rhine and Meuse. In this area people were used to struggle with the water, which is the reason that many early ancestors were engaged in the reclamation of new land or they had responsibilities in the water management as dike reeves. Many of them were also engaged in the local administration and the courts as alderman or sheriff. But some lines also lead to towns like Amsterdam, Dordrecht, Delft, Utrecht and Leiden. Some other ancestors came from the surrounding countries, including French Huguenots and an English seaman. Although most of these protestant families can be characterised as Calvinistic, we found also some Mennonites among the 17th century’s ancestors. One of them was Cornelis Claesz Anslo, preacher of a liberal Mennonite congregation in Amsterdam, who was painted with his wife Aaltje by Rembrandt.  

 

Perhaps some Americans may find early roots in this pedigree, because members of many related families, like den Boesterd, den Hartigh, Moret, de Hoog and Rosa emigrated to the US or Canada. So did a descendant of Anthony Gerrits Middagh (generation 16), called Aert Anthonisz Middagh, who emigrated in 1652 to New Amsterdam, where he lived on ,,Lange eijlant", later called Long Island. Aert married with a daughter of Sarah Rapalje, the first white baby born in New York State (in 1625 at Fort Orange). Another emigrant, a late descendant of Hendrik Jans Monster (generation 11) gave his name (changed to Munster) to the town of Munster, Indiana, near to Chicago. A descendant of Gerit Hamel (generation 19), Heijndrick Hamel, was patron of the colony on the South river (New-Netherland) in the 17th century. Another Hendrick Hamel has been suffering a shipwreck thrown on the Island of Corea and kept there in slavery for 13 years, then escaped with a boat to Japan. His “Journal and Description of the Kingdom of Korea, 1653-1666" was the first description of Korea published in the West. Other relatives emigrated to South Africa, for example Reinier Monster, a grandson of Arie Monster (generation 5), went to Johannesburg. His descendants changed their name – for understandable reasons – into Mornet. But also Brasil has been an emigration goal for the Dutch. In 1911 Aart Jan de Geus, a brother of Grietje de Geus (generation 5) emigrated as the leader of a group of farmers to the state of Paraná, where they established the village of Carambeí, still known for its milk factory.

 

Links to nobility

In this pedigree lines to nobility have been found from all 8 great-grandparents (generation 4). Most of them have lines to Charlemagne, five of which are published on the Dutch Charlemagne page (see the summary on Charlemagne), others have some uncertain links. The gateways to nobility and some links in the lines to Charlemagne are shown below:

 

Generation 4

Gateways to Nobility

Line to Charlemagne goes via:

Kw

 

Total

One of the gateways

 

  8

Aart Zuiderent

1 +(1)

Gen17/18 van Dalem van Dongen

Salm, Lotharingen, Stauffen

  9

Adriaantje den Hartigh

2

Gen15/16 van den Bongaert/Bongard

Argenteau, Grandpré, France

10

Arnoldus Monster

1

Gen19/20 van Heenvliet

Borselen, Avesnes, Flanders

11

Adriana Brand

(2)

Gen19/20 van Dalem

no prooved line

12

Wijnand v. Wijgerden

1 +(4)

Gen15/16 Spieringh van Well

Foreest, Holland, Flanders

13

Evertje den Boesterd

1 +(1)

Gen13/14 von Bernsau/Bernsau

Nesselrode, Sayn, Sponheim

14

Bastiaan Baars

2 +(1)

Gen21/22 van Hodenpijl

Heemstede, Brederode, Petegem

15

Pleuntje Zuiderent

1 +(1)

Gen15/16 van den Bongaert/Bongard

Argenteau, Grandpré, France

 

 

( )

= with weak chain(s)  

 

 

This is a remarkable result because, as mentioned before, none of these families belongs to a higher class, it are typical middle class families. The key for finding such links are the gateways between non-noble and noble families, most of which are mentioned above. The table shows that these gateways are all positioned between generation 15 and 22, which is at least some 500 years ago, long enough to “forget” any link to former nobility.

 

 

The “Pedigree Collapse”-phenomenon

The theoretical number of ancestors per generation increases exponentially: 4 grandparents, 8 members of the next generation, then 16, 32 etc. In generation 21 we have more then one million ancestors, in generation 31 more than one billion. In the time of Charlemagne (generation 38) we have a theoretical number of 140 billion ancestors. Europe however did not have more than 40 millions of inhabitants in that period. This means that there have always been marriages between (far) relatives, that’s why we find the same persons in multiple pedigree positions (in Dutch “kwartieren”) of the pedigree. Some names in the pedigree appear twice, three times or even hundreds if we go back many centuries. In German this phenomenon is called “Ahnenverlust” (loss of ancestors), in English it is know as “Pedigree Collapse”. It will also be claer that many inhabitants of Europe will descent from Charlemagne, the main problem however is to prove it. This is practically – with much luck – only possible if a big pedigree is made.

 

This pedigree shows 50% loss of ancestors in the first 20 generations. The nearly 4000 ancestors which have been found represent twice as much pedigree positions. This is not only because of some marriages between second cousins. In the delta area of the rivers Rhine and Meuse, which consists of many islands, many people are far relatives from each other without knowing it. This phenomenon is illustrated in the genealogy of Doen Beijensz, who lived about 1500 in this area and whose descendants have been fully documented during two centuries. One of the reasons is that in rural areas the sons of farmers had to marry daughters of other farmers to be sure to get enough land to do their job. We found in some cases the same farmers on the island of IJsselmonde 17, 18 or one person even 19 times in our pedigree.

 

The whole pedigree consists of 45 generations, in which 6600 ancestors represent 234000 pedigree positions, which is a factor of 35 (version April 2006). This is mainly because of the generations 21-45, which consist only of nobility, because we don’t have dates about middle- and low-class people in the Middle Ages. The marriages between the members of the nobility where very restricted, a reason that you frequently meet the same ancestors. This is showed by the fact that Charlemagne appears 3700 times in this pedigree. This is not directly visible because repetition of the same ancestors is suppressed to make the document readable.

 

 

 

Ancestors as Crusaders and Pilgrims

A remarkable number of ancestors in this pedigree were involved in the crusades; others made pilgrimages to the Holy Land:

 

Preparation for the crusades

-   Count Robert I "the Frisian" of Flanders was the guest of Emperor Alexios, when he visited Constantinople in 1089 on his return from a pilgrimage to Jerusalem.

-   Emperor Alexios Komnenos of Byzantium was impressed by the military entourage of the Count of Flanders and his cavalry which gave him the idea to consider Western knights against the Turks. In 1095 Alexios used this contact to ask the West (Pope Urban II) for military assistance.

 

The First Crusade 1096-1099

-   Count Hugh I of Vermandois, brother of King Philip I of France, one of the military leaders of the crusade. He deserted during the siege of Antioch, after a trip to Constantinople to ask for military assistance. Went back under pressure in 1101.

-   Count Stephen II of Blois, another military leader of the crusade, deserted during the siege of Antioch. His wife, daughter of William the Conqueror, sent him back in 1101.

-   Baldwin of Rethel (of Le Bourg), which we meet later on as Count of Edessa and as King Baldwin II of Jerusalem.

-   Count Baldwin II of Hainaut was murdered 1098 in Asia when he went to report the capture of Antioch to the Emperor in Constantinople.

-   Count Eustace of Boulogne, brother of Godfrey of Bouillon.

-   Milon I "the Great" of Monthléry, on crusade 1096, taken prisoner by the enemy 1102. His brother

-   Guy II of Monthléry took the cross in 1098.

-   Henry of Esch died after the conquest of Antioch in 1098.

-   Count Erard I of Brienne

-   Ingelbrecht IV of Petegem and Cysoing

-   Walter Bertout of Grimbergen

 

The failed Crusade of 1101/1102

-   Duke William VII-IX of Poitou-Aquitaine, known as the first troubadour, escaped in the battle of Heraclea, where the Turks had laid an ambush in September 1101.

-   Duke Welf IV of Bavaria was also able to escape in Heraclea, but died on his way back in Cyprus.

-   Count Hugh I of Vermandois (deserted in the First Crusade) was wounded in Heraclea and died in Tarsus.

-   Count Stephen II of Blois (deserted in the First Crusade) was able to visit Jerusalem but died in a battle near Ramula.

-   Count Stephen I of Burgundy-Ivrea-Maçon, who was murdered in Askelon in Mai 1102.

 

The Second Crusade 1147-1149

-   King Louis VII of France, one of the military leaders of this crusade, accompanied by his wife,

-   Queen Eleonora of Poitou-Aquitaine, Queen of France (later on Queen of England), patroness of the troubadours.

-   Count William III of Burgundy-Ivrea-Maçon (Count of Auxonne)

-   Count Otto I (III) of Wittelsbach (later on Duke of Bavaria).

-   Count Otto II of Wittelsbach, father of Otto I (III).

-   Count Amadeus III of Savoye, cousin of Louis VII, died 1148 on his way back in Cyprus.

-   Count Henry I of Champagne & Brie, father of Henry II.

-   Count Walter II of Brienne.

-   Count Enguerrand II of Coucy died during the crusade in 1148.

-   Count Berthold II of Andechs attended the great council at Palma (near Accre) on 24.06.1148.

-   Count Robert of Perche, brother of Louis VII, attended the great council at Palma on 24.06.1148.

-   Duke Matthew I of Lorraine, who took the sea route and was involved in the capture of Moorish occupied Lissabon.

-   Count Dirk II of Flanders brought back a relic from Jerusalem in 1149 which is still revered in Brugge. His wife,

-   Countess Sybille of Anjou, lived later on as a nun in Bethanië near Jerusalem, where she died. She was a member of the cabinet of Queen Melisende in 1147.

-   Count Renaud I of Bar, who died during the crusade in 1149.

-   Count Renaud II of Bar, his son.

-   Walter II of Châtillon, died near Laodicea 1147 or 1148

-   Sir Renaud of Courtenay, the later Sir of Sutton, Berkshire, attended the crusade under king Louis VII.

 

The Third Crusade 1189-1192

-   King Philip II Augustus of France, one of the military leaders of this crusade.

-   Count Peter II of Courtenay, accompanied King Philip Augustus.

-   Duke Berthold III of Andechs, Duke of Merania, leader of the third contingent.

-   Count Louis III of Chiny died during the crusade in Belgrade in 1189.

-   Count Henry II of Champagne & Brie, the later king of Jerusalem, was involved in the Siege of Accre.

-   André of Brienne, Lord of Ramarus, died near Accre 1189.

-   Gobert V of Aspremont died during the crusade in 1190.

-   Godfrey IV of Joinville died during the Siege of Accre 1190.

-   Jean I of Montmirail took the cross in 1191.

-   Philippe of Lévis took the cross in 1191.

-   Robert III of Beaumont, third Earl of Leicester, took the cross in 1191 and died in the same year in Durazzo.

-   Rudolf I of Coucy, fallen near Accre on July 1, 1191.

-   Robert V van Béthune, fallen near Accre on July 1, 1191.

-   Count Gerard II of Looz, fallen near Accre in 1191.

-   Hellin I of Wavrin, fallen 1191.

-   Count Floris III of Holland accompanied Frederick Barbarossa, he died 1190 in Antioch.

-   Count William I of Holland, son of Floris III, accompanied his father.

-   Baldwin of Altena accompanied Count Floris III of Holland.

-   Dirk of Altena, father of Baldwin.

-   Count Otto IV of Bentheim, brother of Floris III of Holland.

-   Count Otto I of Gelre attended the siege of Ptolemais.

-   Rutger of Merum, vassal of Holland.

-   Hugh of Voorne died during the crusade before April 1189.

 

The Fourth Crusade 1202-1204

-   Count Baldwin VI/IX of Hainaut and Flanders was involved in the conquest of Constantinople in 1202, after which he was elected as the first Latin Emperor of Byzantium (Baldwin I of Byzantium, 1202/04).

 

The Fifth Crusade 1217-1229

-   Count William I of Holland was involved in Portugal and in the conquest of Damietta in 1219.

-   Count William III of Jülich died during the siege of Damietta in 1218/19.

-   Count Godfrey II of Cuyk-Arnsberg fought in Egypt 1217/19.

-   Count Simon III of Saarbrücken fought in Egypt, conquest of Damietta 1217/19.

-   Salentin I of Isenburg died during the crusade in 1219.

-   Dirk of Herlaer was involved in Damietta in 1219.

-   Herman of Elsloo was involved in Damietta in 1219.

-   Simon of Joinville fought against the Cathars, distinguished himself at the capture of Damietta.

-   Count Godfrey III of Sponheim died during the Crusade in 1223.

-   Baldwin II of Praet, mentioned as a Knight Templar 1226/27.

 

 

Rulers in Jerusalem and Byzantium

-   Emperor Alexios Komnenos of Byzantium 1081/1118, mentioned above, asked the West for assistance.

-   Baldwin of Rethel (Baldwin II of Jerusalem), Count of Edessa 1100/18, King of Jerusalem 1118/31.

-   Queen Melisende of Rethel, daughter of Baldwin, Queen of Jerusalem 1131/52.

-   Fulk V of Anjou, her husband, as co-ruler King of Jerusalem 1131/43.

-   Emperor Ioannes II Komnenos Dukas of Byzantium 1118/43, Emperor between the First and Second Crusade; he did not succeed to bring back Antioch under Byzantian rule in 1138.

-   Amalrik I of Anjou, King of Jerusalem 1163/74, son of Queen Melisende. He was an able ruler; the Kingdom reached its high point during his reign. Married a member of the Byzantine Emperor’s family.

-   Isabelle of Anjou, Queen of Jerusalem 1192/1205, daughter of Amalrik. All later Christian Kings of Jerusalem are descendants of Isabelle. She married 4 times.

-   Henry II of Champagne & Brie, King of Jerusalem 1192/97, third husband of Isabelle.

-   Baldwin VI/IX of Hainaut and Flanders (Baldwin I of Byzantium), first Latin Emperor of Constantinople 1202/04, taken captive and executed by the Bulgarians.

-   Peter II of Courtenay, third Latin Emperor of Constantinopel, 1216/18, was taken captive on his way to Constantinopel, was therefore not able to do the job himself, so his wife

-   Yolande of Hainaut, was in charge of the Empire during her husbands captivity. She died in 1219.

 

New nobility of the Crusade states

-   Baldwin I of Rama, 1106/36, got the title of Lord of Rama, a town near Jaffa.

-   Balian I of Ibelin was honoured with the title Lord of Ibelin in 1144, he established one of the most powerful dynasties in Jerusalem and Cyprus. His son

-   Balian II of Ibelin became Lord of Nablus and married 1177 Maria Komnene of Byzantium, widow of king Amalrik I (Anjou) of Jerusalem. Balian defended Jerusalem against Saladin in 1187. He had to surrender, the city was evacuated but no Christian was harmed. (In the movie “The Kingdom of Heaven” Balian is a generation younger, has another father and had an affair with Queen Sibylle instaed of beeing married with her stepmother).

-   Philipp I of Montfort, member of a very powerful family, became Lord of Tyrus in 1240. His son

-   Philippe II of Montfort died with King Louis IX of France near Tunis in 1270.

 

 

Pilgrimages to the Holy Land

 

Before the crusades:

-   Countess Hidda of Nordmark died in Jerusalem around 975.

-   Count Hilduin II of Ramerupt visited Jerusalem in 992.

-   Count Dirk III of Holland probably made 2 pilgrimages to Palestine, one in 1005, after which he was called Hierosolymity, and one in 1030/34.

-   Count Adalbert of Metz died on a pilgrimage to Palestine in 1033.

-   Duke Robert of Normandy died in 1035 in Nicea, Turkey, on his way back home.

-   Count Conrad I of Luxemburg died 1086 in the Holy Land on his way back from Jerusalem.

-   Count William IV of Toulouse died around 1094 near Huesca.

 

Between the crusades:

-   Count Renaud I of Bar made a pilgrimage after 1113.

-   Count Dirk VI of Holland visited Jerusalem in 1138. During this pilgrimage his son Peregrius (Pilgrim) was born.

-   Countess Sophia of Rheineck, his wife, made also pilgrimages in 1173 and in 1176, when she died in Jerusalem.

-   Jan I of Heusden, fallen on Crusade in 1144.

-   Peter of France, Sir of Courtenay, crusader, goes to Palestine 1178, dies there in 1183.

-   Jacques of Avesnes (d'Oisy), crusader 1187.

-   Duke Henry I of Brabant and Lower-Lorraine, on crusade 1197/98.

 

After the crusades:

-   Gerard of Egmond visited the Holy Land before 1242.

-   Dirk of Brederode died 1313 in Reims on his way back from a pilgrimage to the Holy Land.

-   Lambrecht Jansz Verstoup made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem and Constantinople in the 16th century, shown on his tombstone.

-   Jan de Huyter, a Delft brewer, is mentioned as a Knight of Jerusalem in 1512.

-   Willem van Beveren, representative of the town of Dordrecht, visited Jerusalem around 1505.

 

 

European crusades

-   Marshal Guy I of Lévis was involved in the crusade against the Albigens in 1209 in Languedoc.

-   Count Floris IV of Holland was involved in the crusade against farmers near Bremen, Germany, in 1234.

-   John IV of Arkel was involved in a crusade in Prussia in 1335.  

 

 

 

Link to the Merovingians?

In contrast to Dan Browns thriller “The Da Vinci Code”, in which he bases his “genealogy” on the pseudo historic fantasy in the ''Holy Blood, Holy Grail'' (written by Baigent, Leigh and Lincoln, published by Dell 1982), the Merovingians are supposed to have a respectable number of descendants. This will at least be true if the female lines are taken into account. Although no line to the Merovingians is 100% proven, it can be expected that there have at least been marriages between Carolingians and Merovingian daughters.

 

One probable line, in which the Carolingians (and with them many Europeans) are late descendants of Merovech, is showed below. (In the pedigree this line is interrupted before Thierry III).

 

Mérovée (Merovech), (died 456/7), King of the Salic Franks after 450. Legendary founder of the Merovingian Dynasty of Frankish Kings.

            I

Childeric I (died 481 in Tournai), King of the Franks & Basina (of Thuringia)

            I

Clovis I (died 511 in Paris), King of Salic Franks & Saint Clothilde of Burgundy. Clovis dictated the Salic Law (Lex Salica).

            I

Clothaire I (501-561), King of the Franks (in Soissons) & Arnegonde

            I

Chilperic I (535-584), King of Neustria  & Fredegundis

            I

Clothaire II (584-629), King of Franks & Bertrude      

            I

Dagobert I (died 639), King of Austrasia, King of Franks & Nanthilde

            I

Clovis II  (633-657), King of Neustria and Burgundy & Bathilde

            I

Thierry (Theuderic) III (died 690/91), King of Burgundy, king of the Franks & Clothilde

            I

Berthe the Elder, a Merovingian princess, founded the abbey of Prüm in 720

            I

Caribert, Count of Laon (died 748)

            I

Bertrade of Laon (720-783) & Pepin the Short, King of the Franks

            I

Charlemagne, Emperor of the West

 

 

A weak chain in this line is Berthe the Elder (of Prüm), who is supposed to be a Merovingian princess. This is neither generally accepted, nor 100% proven. A different version is supported by Siegfried Rosch in "Caroli Magni Progenies" (1977 Degener Verlag), where she is the daughter of Pfalzgraf Hugobert, who died 697/698. But Christian Settipani makes plausible in his "Les ancêtres de Charlemagne" (ISBN 2-906483-28-1) that her father was the Merovingian king Thierry III. He gives many arguments for this hypothesis, a part of which can be found on the list soc.genealogy.medieval of 16 Nov 1999 08:05:19. Also Hans. J. C. Schats supports this line as a likely possibility in “Voorouders van Karel de Grote” on www.kareldegrote.nl. When Berthe donated land to the abbey of Prüm, the donation document was co-signed by her son Caribert and three witnesses – which are supposed to be her relatives – with the typical Merovingian names Bernier, Rolande and Thierry.

 

 

Steinhausen, August 2007, A. Zuiderent

 

 

 

 Dictionary Dutch - English

 

Dutch

English

 

 

abdij

abbey

boer

farmer

bouwman, bouman

farmer

datum/bron:

date of last change, sources

diaken

deacon

dijkgraaf

main dike reeve

Duitsland

Germany

Frankrijk

France

geb.(geboren)

born

ged. (gedoopt)

baptised

generatie

generation

genoemd

mentioned

gesneuveld

fallen (in a battle)

graaf

count

grafzerk

tombstone

heemraad

dike reeve (member)

hertog

duke

hij trouwde met NN

he married NN

impost

Taxes (for marriage, burial etc.)

keizer

emperor

kerk

church

kerkmeester

financial responsible in the Church

Keulen

Cologne

koning

king

koopman

merchant, businessman

landbouwer

farmer

lidmaat

church member

molenaar

miller

na

after

ook bekend als (alias)

also known as

otr (ondertrouw)

given notice, the banns

ouderling

elder (in the church)

ovl. (overleden)

died

ridder

knight

schepen

alderman

schilder

painter

schout

sheriff, bailiff

smid

blacksmith

stedehouder

deputy

timmerman

carpenter

tr. (trouwt, trouwde)

married

van Beieren

of Bavaria

van Saksen

of Saxony

vermeld

mentioned (in the charters)

voor

before

winkelier

shopkeeper

zerk

tombstone

zie dezelfde persoon hierboven in generatie x

see the same person above in generation x

*

probable, not proved